Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is a member of the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the family Flaviviridae that can cause a wide range of clinical symptoms, from asymptomatic disease to severe meningitis, encephalitis flaccid paral-ysis, and death. In immunocompetent children, WNV infection is usually benign and self-limiting. However, this virus is also associated with severe neurological disease in some patients, especially those who are older, have a chronic disease, have undergone organ transplantation, or are immunocompromised.
Case Report: A 12-year-old boy with selective immunoglobulin A-deficiency (SIgAD) and refractory seizures due to WNV encephalitis (WNE) was successfully treated with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in conjunction with other immunomod-ulatory therapies.
Conclusion: WNV can progress like autoimmune encephalitis. TPE appears to be safe and effective for treating children with WNE. To our knowledge, this report is the first of a child with WNV infection and SIgAD.