Objective: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the most common causes of chronic renal failure in children. Although data about the growth failure and cognitive impairment in children with end-stage renal disease are available, there are insufficient data about the developmental screening in infanthood of children with CAKUT. The aim of this study is to evaluate the neurodevelopment of children with CAKUT using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler
Development Screening Test, Third Edition (Bayley-III).
Materials and Methods: The cognitive, language, receptive communication, expressive communication, global motor, gross motor, and fine motor scores of children aged 141 months diagnosed with CAKUT (n=30) were compared with healthy controls (n=32).
Results: There was no significant difference between groups with regard to the age, height, weight, head circumference, body mass index, mid-arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness and the language, expressive communication, receptive communication, gross motor, fine motor, and global motor scores (p>0.05). Maternal age, the weight at birth, and the educational level of mothers were similar in both groups (p>0.05). There was no significant relationship between the educational level of mothers, iron deficiency anemia, and Bayley-III scores (p>0.05). Cognitive scores of children with CAKUT were significantly lower than scores of the control group (p=0.04). Cognitive scores of patients with recurrent urinary tract infection were lower than −1 standard deviation value.
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that children with CAKUT who have a recurrent urinary tract infection history have delayed cognitive developmental outcomes compared with healthy children, as assessed using Bayley-III. The neurodevelopment of these children should be closely followed up and supported in the early period.