|1.||Managing the Behaviour of People who Disregard COVID-19 Safety Preventive Measures|
Emmanuel Lamptey, Ephraim Kumi Senkyire, Dooshima Aki Benita, Jude Kyeremeh Ameyaw
doi: 10.14744/etd.2021.73479 Pages 519 - 521
|2.||Authorship Forms amid COVID-19: Possible Source of Transmission and Need for Universal Digitalization|
Rimesh Pal, Urmila Yadav
doi: 10.14744/etd.2021.30906 Page 522
|3.||Future of Lung Transplantation in Turkey|
Muhammet Ali Beyoğlu, Hülya Yiğit Özay, Sema Turan, Erdal Yekeler
doi: 10.14744/etd.2021.35902 Pages 523 - 529
Lung transplantation significantly improves the quality of life and survival in end-stage lung diseases. Successful lung transplantation has been performed only for 35 years. Despite the increase in the number of lung transplants in recent years, the difference between potential recipient candidates and the number of lung transplants increases further. In Turkey, which has significant experience in other solid-organ transplantations, lung transplantation has only been routinely applied in the last decade. In this review, the history of lung transplantation in Turkey, current situation, and prospects will be discussed.
|4.||Clarifying Terminology of Signs in COVID-19|
Steven Yale, Halil Tekiner, Süreyya Burcu Görkem, Jacob Draves, Fan Ye, Eileen Yale
doi: 10.14744/etd.2021.33716 Pages 530 - 536
The term sign has been used to describe various phenomena observed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Discrepancies in the use of this term have been identified when it is used in context with COVID-19. The goals of this review are to provide an overview, describe signs, and clarify misconceptions regarding the use of these terms in COVID-19 patients. PubMed and Medline databases were searched using individual and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, including coronavirus, COVID-19, and sign, in human studies within the English literature published from inception to December 31, 2020. Studies where the word sign was used in a context different from that for COVID-19 (e.g., sentinel sign) were excluded. Three hundred fifty-seven studies were potentially identified and after applying the exclusion criteria and further adjudication, 92 studies constituted the final data set. The majority of signs found in the COVID-19 literature have been applied and aptly described primarily in radiologic diseases of the chest. The term sign, in other situations, is often misappropriated as it actually represents a physical finding rather than a sign. A total of 27 radiologic signs have been identified on chest computed tomography (CT) or high-resolution CT (HRCT), and 18 cutaneous signs (or findings) have been observed during the physical examination in COVID-19. Signs lack sufficient sensitivity or specificity by themselves; however, in the appropriate clinical setting, they should raise clinical suspicion for this infectious disease.
|5.||Serum Prolidase Activity in Cardiovascular Disease|
Lütfü Aşkın, Okan Tanrıverdi
doi: 10.14744/etd.2020.09476 Pages 537 - 540
Serum prolidase activity (SPA) plays a vital role in plaque stabilization in collagen turnover in atherosclerotic plaques. Thus, SPA has an essential role in the diagnosis and prevention of coronary artery disease. SPA values may be higher in hypertension, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery ectasia, and aneurysmatic diseases than average values due to collagen turnover and oxidative stress. We aimed to present a review to show the role of SPA based on cardiovascular diseases and how it will contribute to prognosis with the most recent data.
|6.||The Assessment of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Different Serum and Plasma Specimens|
Mehmet Erdem, Süleyman Caner Karahan, Ahmet Menteşe, Serap Özer Yaman, Selim Demir
doi: 10.14744/etd.2021.75983 Pages 541 - 547
Objective: Appropriate selection of the type of blood specimen tube employed is of great importance to the accurate and reliable measurement of oxidative stress biomarkers. This study examined the effect of specimen variety on measurement re-sults using serum and plasma samples obtained from blood tubes with six different contents for measuring ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), total oxidant status (TOS), and total antioxidant status (TAS).
Materials and Methods: Ischemia-modified albumin, TOS, and TAS levels were assayed in serum and plasma specimens obtained from blood collected from 16 volunteers and placed into serum collection tubes, plain tubes, and anticoagulant tubes containing dipotassium EDTA, trisodium citrate, lithium heparin, and sodium fluoride/disodium EDTA (NaF/Na2EDTA). IMA was measured using the Bar-Or method, and TOS and TAS were measured using TOS and TAS assay kits, respectively. Total albumin assay was performed using a Beckman Coulter AU5800 autoanalyzer.
Results: In all tubes, IMA, IMA/albumin ratio, TOS, TAS, and oxidative stress index values were compared, and all these parameters were found to be statistically significant between six different tubes (p=0.0001). Ischemia-modified albumin and TOS measurements in plasma specimens obtained from tubes containing dipotassium EDTA and NaF/Na2EDTA differed significantly from the results of the other specimens.
Conclusion: We conclude that IMA and TOS cannot be measured from blood specimens with dipotassium EDTA and NaF/Na2EDTA. However, TAS can be determined in all specimen types. The selection of the specimen type to be used in the measurement of IMA, TOS, and TAS is of great importance and now requires standardization.
|7.||The Role of Platelet Count, Platelet Lymphocyte Ratio, and Systemic Immune-Inflammatıon Index in Predicting Lymph Node Metastasis in Colon Cancer|
Serhan Yılmaz, Hakan Bölükbaşı, Engin Okan Yıldırım, Aziz Ocakoğlu, Mehmet Abdussamet Bozkurt
doi: 10.14744/etd.2021.67689 Pages 548 - 553
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the role of platelet counts, platelet lymphocyte ratio, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio, and systemic immune-inflammation index in predicting lymph node metastasis in preoperative period in patients with colon cancer.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted between May 2015 and May 2020 at the University of Health Sciences, Kanuni Sultan Suleyman Training and Research Hospital. A total of 130 patients who underwent colon resection for colon adenocarcinoma were evaluated. They were divided into groups via nodal staging using the TNM classification: N0: 0; N1: 13; and N2: 4 or more.
Results: A significant difference was observed between the inter-group platelet counts, platelet lymphocyte ratio, and systemic immune-inflammation index. The platelet value was significantly higher in N1 and N2 than in N0. There was also a significant difference between NO and N2 compared with platelet lymphocyte ratio and systemic immune-inflammation index.
Conclusion: Systemic immune-inflammation index, platelet lymphocyte ratio, and platelet count can be used in combination with TNM staging for personalized treatment.
|8.||Diagnostic and Clinical Predictive Value of Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter Measurement in Children with Increased Intracranial Pressure|
Özlem Tolu Kendir, Hayri Levent YILMAZ, Hüseyin Tuğsan Ballı, Sinem Sari, İlker Ünal, Ahmet Kağan Özkaya
doi: 10.14744/etd.2021.43809 Pages 554 - 559
Objective: In this study, we aimed to determine the diagnostic and clinical predictive value of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurement in pediatric patients suspected of increased intracranial pressure (IICP) by comparing sonographic ONSD values with radiological parameters and controls.
Materials and Methods: In total, 57 pediatric patients with suspected IICP who underwent computed tomography (CT) scans were included in this prospective, observational study; meanwhile, 35 patients were included as controls. Measure-ments were obtained while the patients were in supine position with their eyes closed, and transbulbar images of both eyes were obtained via a 615 MHz linear probe. The CT scans were assessed by a radiologist blinded to sonographic mea-surements. Glasgow coma scale of patients, service where they were followed, clinical results, CT, and ONSD values were assessed in this study.
Results: In the patient group, 26 of the patients were girls (35.4%), and the mean age was 138±56 months (min-max: 82194 months). Meanwhile, in the control group, 18 of the patients were girls (40.9%), and mean age was 151±45 months (min-max: 106196 months). As per our findings, 31 patients (54.4%) presented with high-energy trauma. Mean ONSD was 0.5±0.07 cm in the patient group, whereas it was 0.3±0.02 cm in the control group (p=0.008). It was 0.55±0.07 cm in patients with cerebral edema (CE) on CT scan (p=0.013). Based on the presence of CE as detected via CT scan, cut-off value for measurement was determined to be 0.49 cm, with 83.33% sensitivity and 68.42% specificity (AUC: 0.784).
Conclusion: Optic nerve sheath measurement can be utilized to immediately support diagnosis and predict follow-up in the assessment of pediatric patients with ICP elevation
|9.||The Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Mental Health of Healthcare Workers and Recommendations for Preventing Loss of Work Efficiency|
Fatma Çölkesen, Fatih Çölkesen
doi: 10.14744/etd.2021.03453 Pages 560 - 565
Objective: We aimed to evaluate the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the mental health conditions of healthcare workers and raise awareness regarding the measures to be taken in this regard.
Materials and Methods: A group of total 435 healthcare professionals, including 52.2% women, who worked in the pandemic clinics, were enrolled. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was administered using a web-based questionnaire system. We divided the healthcare workers into the following three groups: physicians, nurses, and other auxil-iary healthcare workers, and compared their HADS-A and HADS-D scores. We grouped the healthcare workers as per their departments and years of professional experience and compared the HADS-A and HADS-D scores of the groups.
Results: The mean patient age was 34.34±8.34 y. Further, 25.7% had received professional mental support, and 18.6% started undergoing professional psychological therapy for the first time in their lives owing to the psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic process. Healthcare workers were assessed for anxiety and depression using the HADS; 43.4% of them had anxiety and 65.1% had depression.
Conclusion: The present study stated that <50% of healthcare workers with mental disorders who were serving as frontline healthcare providers for COVID-19 patients receive professional mental support. The authorities should take precautions to prevent healthcare services from being interrupted and the negative impacts on healthcare workers mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.
|10.||Determining the Relationship between Food Consumption, Nutritional Status, and Cognitive Functions in the Elderly|
Sema Çalapkorur, Hürmet Küçükkatırcı, Buse Bakır, Sibel Akın
doi: 10.14744/etd.2021.31799 Pages 566 - 573
Objective: In this study, we aim to determine the relationship between food consumption, nutritional status, and cognitive functions among the elderly.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was completed with 150 geriatric outpatients in Erciyes University Hospital. Demographic characteristics of the patients were collected, and the anthropometric measurements were made. Their 24-h food consumption was evaluated using the computer program BeBiS. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and Nutritional Screening Index (NSI) were used to determine the malnutrition risk, whereas the Standardized Mini Mental Test was used to identify the cognitive functions. The obtained data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 22.0; p<0.05 level was considered statistically significant.
Results: While 34.7% of the participants were at risk of malnutrition and 2.7% were malnourished according to MNA; in the NSI evaluation, these rates were determined to be 32.7% and 17.3%, respectively. It could be noted that with the decrease in malnutrition risk, language and orientation scores in cognitive function assessment increased. When the relationship between food consumption and cognitive function was analyzed, it was observed that participants with high protein, fat, phosphorus, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C consumption have normal cognitive function.
Conclusion: It has been determined that the various macro- and micronutrient consumption of the elderly can have sub-stantial effects on their cognitive functions. Besides, the increasing risk of malnutrition was determined to be related to the decrease in cognitive functions. Therefore, it is essential to ensure adequate and balanced nutrient intake among the elderly and to determine the malnutrition risk with regular screenings, in order to make appropriate interventions when necessary.
|11.||Ventricular Repolarization Parameters in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19|
Serkan Sivri, Ahmet Kıvrak, Lokman Hizmali
doi: 10.14744/etd.2021.93902 Pages 574 - 578
Objective: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) may cause atrial and/or ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac deaths, especially in severe cases. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether COVID-19 affects the ventricular repolar-ization parameters.
Materials and Methods: In this study, 152 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included retrospectively. Age and sex-matched 151 healthy subjects were assigned as the control group. QT, QTc, Tpe, Tpe/QT, and Tpe/QTc values of all participants were determined and compared between both groups. The relationship between high sensitive-troponin I (hsTnI) and the parameters mentioned was analyzed using the Spearman correlation test.
Results: Mean age, male gender and comorbidity rates were similar in both groups (p>0.05 for each). Heart rate, QTc, Tpe, Tpe/QT, and Tpe/QTc values were higher in the study group (p<0.001 for each). However, QT and QRS values were compa-rable in both groups (p>0.05 for each). There were positive correlations between hsTnI and QT (rho=0.218, p=0.008), QTc (rho=0.308, p<0.001), Tpe (rho=0.646, p<0.001), Tpe/QT (rho=0.571, p<0.001), and Tpe/QTc (rho=0.608, p<0.001).
Conclusion: In patients with COVID-19, QTc, Tpe, Tpe/QT, and Tpe/QTc values are higher than the control group and these parameters correlate positively with hsTnI. Therefore, ECG follow-up may be beneficial in preventing arrhythmic events, especially in patients with acute cardiac injuries.
|12.||Etiologic, Echocardiographic, Cytological, and Biochemical Characteristics of Patients with Significant Pericardial Effusion requiring Pericardiocentesis in a Tertiary Hospital|
Zehra Erkal, Nermin Bayar, Erkan Köklü, Göksel Cagirci, Şakir Arslan, Ramazan Güven
doi: 10.14744/etd.2021.35033 Pages 579 - 584
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the etiology in 100 tertiary care patients who underwent pericar-diocentesis in the last 5 years due to cardiac tamponade or large pericardial effusion (floating heart) through retrospective analysis of their echocardiographic findings, biochemical and cytological test results, and imaging methods.
Materials and Methods: The records of 100 patients who underwent pericardiocentesis in 20142019 due to pericardial effusion were reviewed retrospectively. Their etiology was determined by recording their echocardiograms, biochemical test results, imaging results, and those of laboratory tests performed on pericardial fluid, culture, and cytology results. All data of the patients were recorded and analyzed.
Results: Cardiac tamponade was the most common reason (77%) for pericardiocentesis performed in the patients in the study group. Of the drained effusions, 56% were macroscopically hemorrhagic. The most common etiology was associated with idiopathic causes by 32%. Malignancy was found only in 44.6% of the hemorrhagic effusions. Cytological examination revealed 83% benign findings. Only 58.6% of the patients with malignancy were found to have malignant cells in their cytological tests.
Conclusion: The most common cause was idiopathic in the patients for whom pericardiocentesis was indicated in our study group. Nearly half of the macroscopically hemorrhagic effusions had malignancy. Half of the patients who developed effusion due to malignancy were found to have malignant cells in cytological tests. This study differs from other studies conducted in Turkey because it included a higher number of patients and its results are important to guide our daily practice.
|13.||Comparing the Clinical, Radiological and Laboratory Characteristics of Confirmed or Suspected COVID-19 Cases|
Oğuz Gündoğdu, Onur Avcı
doi: 10.14744/etd.2021.88122 Pages 585 - 593
Objective: The present study aims to compare the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients diagnosed with coro-navirus disease (COVID-19) using Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Computed Tomography (CT).
Materials and Methods: In this study, 240 adult patients were included. The demographic data, symptoms, COVID-19 findings in the initial pulmonary CT during admission and the first laboratory parameters were recorded. The patients were divided into three groups as Group 1 consisting of 100 PCR (+) CT (+) patients, Group 2 consisting of 40 PCR (+) CT (-) patients, Group 3 consisting of 100 PCR (-) CT (+) patients.
Results: The mean symptom duration was 5.78 days in Group 1, 2.67 days in Group 2, and 5.26 days in Group 3 (p<0.05). The mean symptom duration was 5.52 days in CT (+) patients and 2.67 days in CT (-) patients (p<0.05). The findings showed that one unit increase in pathological lobe count decreased PCR positivity by 1.3 times (p=0.002).
Conclusion: There may not be any findings in CT in the first 48-72 hours after the onset of the symptoms in symptomatic patients, and as the number of pathological pulmonary lobes detected in CT increases, PCR positivity decreases.
|14.||Evaluation of Performance Between Thoracic Computed Tomography and Reverse Transcription- Polymerase Chain Reaction Test in Coronavirus Disease-19 Management|
Rezan Karaali, Zeynep Karakaya, Ejder Saylav Bora, Pınar Yesim Akyol, Serkan Bilgin
doi: 10.14744/etd.2021.87088 Pages 594 - 599
Objective: In the present study, we compare Computed Tomography (CT) findings reported according to the Radiology Society of North America (RSNA) criteria and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results to eval-uate their clinical compatibility with the diagnosis and for making the decision on hospitalization or discharge in patients presenting to the emergency department with the suspected Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19.
Materials and Methods: This is retrospective single-center study. Over the age of 18 years, patients were included, preg-nant and trauma patients were excluded from the study. The patients demographic characteristics, and their RT-PCR test, thoracic CT images results, and outcomes were recorded.
Results: Our study was conducted with 1377 patients, of which 60.2% (n=829) were male with a mean age of 42.79±16.07 (1395) years. The sensitivity and specificity of the thoracic CT and RT-PCR test in diagnosis were, based on the first and second test results, the sensitivity was 63.34% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5860.679) and the specificity was 81.08% (95% CI, 0.7840835) for CT, and the sensitivity was 71.93% (95% CI, 0.6740.761) for RT-PCR. Thoracic CT incompat-ible with COVID-19 and discharged 63.7% of patients did not apply to other healthcare facilities with COVID-19 symptoms.
Conclusion: The most effective approach to early diagnosis and the initiation of treatment is still the patients clinical picture and thoracic CT findings, as seen in the present study. The assessment of thoracic CT in accordance with the RSNA criteria can be considered a convenient approach for clinicians in the emergency department when deciding on hospitalization or discharge.
|15.||Psychological effect of COVID-19 on healthcare workers: a cross-sectional study in Kayseri|
Ali Gündoğdu, Saliha Özsoy, Sümeyra Özberk, Cihan Uysal, Ismail Koçyigit, Murat Hayri Sipahioğlu, Bülent Tokgöz, Oktay Oymak
doi: 10.14744/etd.2021.36589 Pages 600 - 605
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Many studies have examined their psychological effects. However, during these periods when the new case of COVID-19 patients decreased, their psychological effects were not sufficiently reported. Our aim was to investigate the anxiety and depressive symptom levels of healthcare workers (HCW) during the periods when the increase in the number of cases slowed down in the COVID-19 epidemic.
Methods: A cross-sectional, a questionnaire consisted of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) was applied to 143 people working in a university hospital. General information such as age, gender, marital status, study history in the COVID-19 pandemic, history of chronic disease, and whether there are other HCW at home were collected and compared.
Results: The median value of Beck anxiety score was 6. The median value of Beck depression score varies by gender (p = 0.015). Median value of Beck depression score varies according to marital status (p = 0.011). The median value of Beck anxiety score varies according to gender (p = 0.008). The median value of Beck anxiety score varies according to occupational groups (p = 0.003). A significant link was obtained between Beck depression groups and marital status (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: COVID-19 shows that it emphasizes ways to reduce mental health risks and adjust interventions under pandemic conditions.
|16.||The Fate of SARS-CoV-2 in the Marine Environments: Are Marine Environments Safe from COVID-19?|
Ayşe Seyer Çağatan, Tamer Şanlıdağ
doi: 10.14744/etd.2021.36675 Pages 606 - 607
|17.||Can Hepatitis B Infection be a Risk Factor for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1?|
Erkan Kozanoğlu, Neslihan Gökçen, Bayram Kelle
doi: 10.14744/etd.2020.76743 Pages 608 - 610
Background: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) has been described as a painful condition with the appearance of trophic, vasomotor, and sudomotor changes. Most of the predisposing factors causing CRPS are classified. However, the definite cause of this syndrome is yet to be clearly specified in some cases. In this report, we presented a case with hand edema along with severe pain, diagnosed as CRPS type 1, coexisting with hepatitis B infection.
Case Report: This study presents a case of a 65-year-old man who had hand edema, severe pain, and decreased range of motion of the wrist without any constitutional symptoms and no history of trauma. He was diagnosed as CRPS type 1 after a detailed physical examination and diagnostic procedures. Ruling out other causes related to CRPS type 1, it is suggested that coexisting hepatitis B infection might be a possible triggering factor for this syndrome.
Conclusion: Hepatitis B infection may be a possible causative factor for CRPS type 1.
|18.||A Case of a Systemic-to-Pulmonary Artery Fistula and its Endovascular Treatment|
Fatih Uzunkaya, Ayşegül Idil Soylu
doi: 10.14744/etd.2020.87533 Pages 611 - 613
Background: Systemic-to-pulmonary artery fistula has been identified as a very rare condition of which the clinical course cannot be fully predicted. Thus, the precise indication for treatment remains to be unclear.
Case Report: A 42-year-old man, without any history of congenital heart disease or chest wall injury, presented with a 3-day history of vague chest pain. As the initial examinations were found unremarkable, the patient underwent coronary CT angiography revealing a fistula between the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) and the upper lobe pulmonary artery. After confirming the fistula via selective LIMA angiography followed by coronary angiography revealing normal coronaries without fistulous connection, the fistula was closed using cyanoacrylate glue injection. Although a nontarget pulmonary embolization was observed to have occurred to a small extent, the complaint of the patient entirely disappeared following the procedure.
Conclusion: Considering the potential complications, it seems more favorable to close a systemic-to-pulmonary artery fis-tula. For a safe and effective treatment, the flow dynamics should be considered when choosing the method of embolization.
|19.||Metastatic Esophagogastric Junction Adenocarcinoma Masquerading as Primary Thyroid Malignancy: A Case Report|
Geng Ju Tuang, Abdul Ruhiulazim Liman, Najihah Nordin, Jennifer Peak Hui Lee, Salmi Abdullah
doi: 10.14744/etd.2020.82085 Pages 614 - 616
Background: Distant metastasis of neoplasm to the thyroid gland represents an unusual clinical manifestation, especially in an individual without a prior history of malignancy. The most frequent site of origin is the renal system, followed by the respiratory system. Metastatic spread from the gastro-digestive tract is rare, and it mostly occurs from the colorectum.
Case Report: A 70-year-old woman presented with thyroid swelling and right vocal fold paralysis that have been going on for 6 months in the absence of upper digestive tract symptoms. Ultrasound-guided biopsy revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma. Its origin was confirmed through an endoscopic biopsy of an exophytic mass forming from the cardioesophageal junction. Computed tomography staging revealed an advanced-stage disease, with metastatic deposits over multiple organs. The patient was given palliative chemotherapy and supportive treatment. She succumbed to death at 1 month post-diagnosis.
Conclusion: Secondary thyroid malignancy represents a rare entity and should be contemplated as one of the differential diagnoses of a goiter. A thorough workout should be performed in atypical thyroid malignancy to avoid unnecessary thyroidectomies in widespread metastasis.
|20.||Management of Sacubitril/Valsartan Combination in an End-stage Heart Failure Patient Hospitalized for COVID-19 Pneumonia: Should we Withdraw Temporarily or Continue?|
Ali Çoner, Cihan Altın
doi: 10.14744/etd.2020.77010 Pages 617 - 619
Background: Many factors were blamed for the worse prognosis in COVID-19. Heart failure patients are thought to be un-der increased risk because of either immune-compromised basal status or possible interaction of viral infection with on-going medications, such as the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers. Sacubitril is a neprilysin inhibitor and its combination with valsartan is recommended as a novel medication for heart failure.
Case Report: A 71 years of age female with end-stage heart failure was hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia. She was under sacubitril/valsartan combination for the heart failure, and at the end of the first week of hospitalization, clinical and laboratory parameters recovered uneventfully. Sacubitril/valsartan therapy was continued without complications during the in-hospital course.
Conclusion: Specific therapies for heart failure should not be withdrawn in COVID-19. To our knowledge, this is the first case report documenting the clinical progress of a COVID-19 pneumonia patient who was already under sacubitril/valsartan treatment.
|21.||An Unusual Presentation of Unilateral Nasal Mass in Infant: Congenital Nasal Encephalocele|
Hui Mon Teh, Narayanan Prepageran
doi: 10.14744/etd.2021.58295 Pages 620 - 621
|22.||A Rare Cause of Hip Pain: Transient Osteoporosis of Hip|
Aylin Altun, Ayhan Aşkın
doi: 10.14744/etd.2021.97105 Pages 622 - 623
|LETTER TO THE EDITOR|
|23.||The Relationship Between Blood Groups and COVID-19 patients|
Benhur Şirvan Çetin, Duran Arslan
doi: 10.14744/etd.2021.03185 Page 624
doi: 10.14744/etd.2021.85282 Page 625
|HISTORY OF MEDICINE - REVIEW|
|25.||History of Contrast Media: Celebrating the Centenary of the Use of Lipiodol® in Radiology|
doi: 10.14744/etd.2021.76429 Pages 626 - 630
On the occasion of the centenary of the first use of an iodinated contrast agent (Lipiodol®) in 1921, this review traces the history of contrast agents that have closely accompanied the innovation of radiology equipment. Lipiodol is an iodinated oil that has made it possible to highlight the interest of the visualization of closed structures of the body (e.g., lung, subarachnoid space, bladder, and joints) and blood and lymphatic vessels. Other water-soluble products then appeared with a radical change in 1953 with the marketing of diatrizoate. The appearance of computed tomography scanners was concomitant with that of low osmolality iodinated contrast products. The arrival of magnetic resonance imaging was quickly followed by gadolinium complexes and then superparamagnetic particles based on iron oxide particles. Thus, the landscape has changed in recent years in radiology, with imaging taking the lead in the current diagnostic scheme.
Pages 631 - 632