Objective: Although the risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) are well established, a significant gap still exists in understanding the pathology of atherosclerotic heart disease evolving without conventional risk factors. Therefore, genetic factors are considered to play a significant role in this setting. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between angiotensin 2 type 1 receptor (AT1R) A1166C gene polymorphism and CAD.
Materials and Methods: Patients with documented CAD (n=121) were compared with controls with normal coronary arteries (n=121). CAD was diagnosed using a coronary angiography. The median age of participants was 59±12 years with an equal sex distribution. A comparison between the two groups with regard to the AT1R A1166C gene polymorphism was made through the amplification of DNA using polymerase chain reaction.
Results: This study demonstrated that adenine-adenine and cytosine-cytosine (CC) genotypes were more frequent, yet adenine-cytosine genotype was less frequent among patients with CAD compared with controls [p=0.003), 95% confidence interval (CI)]. The AT1R A1166C gene polymorphism along with the CC genotype and C allele was found to be associated with CAD. Further, gender, hypertension, family history, age, and low levels of serum high-density lipoprotein also had a significant relationship with AT1R A1166C gene polymorphism.
Conclusion: The present study suggested AT1R A1166C gene polymorphism, CC genotype, and C allele as potential risk factors for atherosclerotic CAD. Patients harboring these genetic variants should be under close supervision for the development of CAD.